니체의 소피스트적 인식과 사상의 형성

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Nietzsche's philosophy has had a profound influence on the postmodern history of thought, and will continue its vitality as it is newly interpreted by various philosophers. The characteristics of Nietzsche's thought are clearly revealed in his first work, “Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik” (Birth of Tragedy). He establishes his philosophical identity through the process of criticizing the basis of traditional philosophy that has continued since Plato. Later generations named him a "philosopher with a hammer". This stems from the characteristic of his critical thinking. For this reason, if we want to explain the characteristics of Nietzsche's philosophy, we should start by looking at his critical position on traditional philosophy.
Nietzsche was not the only one who rebelled against Plato's philosophical foundation. Isocrates, who lived in the contemporary era with Plato, also denied Plato's absolute truth. In the meantime, he tried to pioneer philosophical thinking in contrast to Plato. Other sophists of that era also had a relative and skeptical system of thinking that denied absolute view of truth, but failed to exceed the level of personal arguments. However, Isocrates established an educational institution comparable to Plato's Academy and spread his philosophical thoughts to young people. Plato criticized rhetoric, but Isocrates tried to establish the identity of rhetoric. Through this, he places language at the center of human thought and philosophy. The only practical knowledge that humans can discover is 'opinion'(doxa). - He tried to spread these arguments through many speeches.
Plato considered ‘knowledge’(epistēmē) the most important. However, he criticized it for being a solid system of thought and doing nothing to help reality. Therefore, he tried to discover practical wisdom that helped a person's life. Opinions (doxa) consist of timely judgment and language in life. Isocrates argues that this is the best wisdom humans can gain. This perception of truth and language developed into a key theme that penetrated his philosophy, and his ideas had a great influence on the Athenian youth.
This paper begins with discovering philosophical contacts shared by two thinkers Isocrates and Nietzsche, who claim that knowledge useful for human life is a true philosophy rather than the absolute truth Plato claims. I would like to find the probability of reasoning that the two may have the same roots, not only in opposition to Plato but also in denying absolute truth. Plato's philosophy asserts absolute truth. They commonly use rhetoric-based views of language as a way to overcome Plato's. This idea makes it possible to infer that Nietzsche's thoughts, which lead modern ideas, may have been inspired by the ancient Greek sophists' ways of thinking. And I think this reasoning can provide a wider view of Nietzsche's research in the future.
In order to find out what Nietzsche and Isocrates thought have in common, it is better to start by reevaluating the characteristics of Isocrates thought.
Chapter 1 highlights the aspect of Isocrates, who was a sophist and practical humanist, with a new perspective. In particular, it can be newly discovered that his view on rhetoric maintains its vitality to modern philosophy. Through this work, I would like to accurately analyze the characteristics of Isocrates' thoughts, which are distinct from Plato as well as other sophists.
Chapter 2 will review the following. What is the difference between Isocrates's opinion (doxa) as the source of wisdom and Plato's absolute ‘knowledge’(epistēmē)? What are the consequences of these differences in practical applications as well as approaches to truth or perception? And I will analyze how Isocrates and Plato differ in attitudes toward realistic problems. Isocrates insisted on ‘pan-Greekism’. You can find out what kind of ideological background this was born in.
Chapter 3. Based on the ideological differences between Isocrates and Plato, I would like to contrast Plato and Nietzsche's ideas. Here, I would like to examine Nietzsche's critical view to truth and perception, which is the main theme of traditional philosophy. In particular, I would like to clarify how Nietzsche's thoughts on truth and language have different roots from the traditional philosophy that began with Plato. And by examining Nietzsche's perception of art, we understand why and how modern culture is influenced by Nietzsche.
Chapter 4. I would like to find the roots of Nietzsche's thoughts in the thoughts of Sophists who opposed Plato's ideas. It is common not only in that Nietzsche and Isocrates oppose Plato's idea, but also in that Sophist perception is based on thought. This work will naturally connect with Greek philosophers who started sophist thinking. In particular, through Heracleitos and Calicles, who are called pioneers of sophist thought, we want to find traces of Nietzsche's ideas, namely ‘creation’ and ‘will to power’. The characteristic of Nietzsche's thinking is skepticism. The roots of this can be found in Pyrrhon's philosophy.
Chapter 5. Nietzsche discovers some roots of his ideas in Sophists. How did he develop this into his own form?
Traditional philosophy took absolute truth and the reproducible properties of language for granted. As he overcame this, he deepened his philosophical foundation. Traditional philosophy had a form of question as the basis of thought. Nietzsche tried to overcome traditional thinking by changing the format of the question.
Finally, despite the difference between the times, Nietzsche and Isocrates have something in common in that they rebelled against the spiritual currents of their time, and suggested the direction for human thought to move forward. I would like to make this points the conclusion of this paper.
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일반대학원 철학전공
울산대학교 일반대학원 철학전공
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