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중국의 대외무역체제 개혁과 WTO 가입

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Alternative Title
China : Foreign Trade System Reform and Accession to the WTO
Abstract
중국경제는 일보 진전된 시장경제로 진입하고 있다. 등소평의 남방시찰이 있었던 1992년초 이후 중국정부는 경제체제개혁의 목표를 '사회주의시장경제'의 확립에 두고 전면적인 시장화를 추진하고 있다. 그리고 GATT가입과 미국과의 통상마찰을 완화하려는 목적에서 대외무역관리기구의 조정, 경영관리의 다원화, 수출청부제 실시, 외화유보제도의 변경, 국유제공기업의 개혁 등의 무역체제의 개혁을 가속화하고 있다.

특히 중국은 1986년 이후 GATT에의 재가입을 추진하여 GATT가입 협상과 관련하여 관세인하, HS제도의 도입, 수입조절세 폐지, 수입허가제도의 완화, 대외무역법의 재정, 단일관리변동환율제 채택, 수입쿼타제 폐지 등의 구체적인 시장개방 및 무역제도 개선을 추진하였다. 그러나 1994년 12월말까지 19번의 중국 GATT가입 작업반 회의가 개최되었으나, WTO 발효이전에 중국의 GATT 가입협상은 종결되지 못하여 중국은 자동적으로 WTO의 원체약국 지위를 확보하지 못하였다. 그러므로 앞으로 계속될 협상을 통하여 미국은 지적재산권에 이어 보험, 부가가치 통신, 농산물 등에서 중국의 양보를 얻어내 중국시장을 더 개방시킨 다음, 중국이 개도국 지위로 WTO 창립회원국이 되는 것을 공식 지지하고 나을 것으로 예상되어 중국의 WTO 가입은 1995년 중으로 이루어질 전망이다.
China's economic performance has been remarkable since the initiation of the reform process. Recently, a new phase of economic reforms has begun in China, aimed at establishing a 'socialist market economy' as a national goal. Especially, in the context of reaccession to the GATT, the authorities establish a liberalized trade regime enacting foreign Trade Law. Therefore, all rules and regulations un trade are published, tariffs on about 3,000 commodities were reduced, lowering the average tariff rate from 40% to about 36%. Import licensing requirements were removed and mandatory trade planning eliminated. Integrated foreign exchange market is established by unifying exchange rates, abolishing retention system and the foreign exchange plan.

In spite of those reforms, China failed to become original members of the WTO. Therefore, the United States will demand more market access from China, such as banking, insurance, civil aviation, agriculture, in addition to intellectual properly rights by the U.S.-China bilateral discussions. After that, the United States will support China to be a member of the WTO as LDC status. So, it is likely that China will be re-admitted into the world trading club by the end of 1995.
China's economic performance has been remarkable since the initiation of the reform process. Recently, a new phase of economic reforms has begun in China, aimed at establishing a 'socialist market economy' as a national goal. Especially, in the context of reaccession to the GATT, the authorities establish a liberalized trade regime enacting foreign Trade Law. Therefore, all rules and regulations un trade are published, tariffs on about 3,000 commodities were reduced, lowering the average tariff rate from 40% to about 36%. Import licensing requirements were removed and mandatory trade planning eliminated. Integrated foreign exchange market is established by unifying exchange rates, abolishing retention system and the foreign exchange plan.

In spite of those reforms, China failed to become original members of the WTO. Therefore, the United States will demand more market access from China, such as banking, insurance, civil aviation, agriculture, in addition to intellectual properly rights by the U.S.-China bilateral discussions. After that, the United States will support China to be a member of the WTO as LDC status. So, it is likely that China will be re-admitted into the world trading club by the end of 1995.
Author(s)
최병철
Issued Date
1995
Type
Research Laboratory
URI
https://oak.ulsan.ac.kr/handle/2021.oak/4325
http://ulsan.dcollection.net/jsp/common/DcLoOrgPer.jsp?sItemId=000002024793
Alternative Author(s)
Choi, Byung-Cheol
Publisher
사회과학논집
Language
kor
Rights
울산대학교 저작물은 저작권에 의해 보호받습니다.
Citation Volume
5
Citation Number
2
Citation Start Page
57
Citation End Page
82
Appears in Collections:
Research Laboratory > Journal of social science
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