빅데이터 구축을 위한 딥러닝 알고리즘 응용 의료 영상 비식별화 소프트웨어 개발

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High-resolution medical images that include facial regions can be used to recognize the subject’s face when reconstructing 3-dimensional (3D)-rendered images from 2-dimensional (2D) sequential images, which might constitute a risk of infringement of personal information when sharing data. According to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy rules, full-face photographic images and any comparable image are direct identifiers and considered as protected health information. Moreover, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) categorizes facial images as biometric data and stipulates that special restrictions should be placed on the processing of biometric data.
This study aimed to develop software that can remove the header information of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format files and facial features (eyes, nose, and ears) at the 2D sliced-image level to anonymize personal information in medical images.
A total of 240 cranial magnetic resonance (MR) images were used to train the deep learning model (144, 48, and 48 for the training, validation, and test sets, respectively, from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative [ADNI] database). To overcome the small sample size problem, we used a data augmentation technique to create 576 images per epoch. We used attention-gated U-net for the basic structure of our deep learning model. To validate the performance of the software, we adapted an external test set comprising 100 cranial MR images from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS) database.
The facial features (eyes, nose, and ears) were successfully detected and anonymized in both test sets (48 from ADNI and 100 from OASIS). Each result was manually validated in both the 2D image plane and the 3D rendered images. Furthermore, the ADNI test set was verified using Microsoft Azure's face recognition artificial intelligence service. By adding a user interface, we developed and distributed (via GitHub) software named “Deface program” for medical images as an open-source project.
In summary, I developed deep learning-based software for the anonymization of MR images that distorts the eyes, nose, ears and mouth to prevent facial identification of the subject in reconstructed 3D images. It could be used to share medical big data for secondary research while making both data providers and recipients compliant with the relevant privacy regulations.
This study was summited in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, and contains advanced content.
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Yeon Uk Jeong
일반대학원 의과학과 의공학전공
울산대학교 일반대학원 의과학과 의공학전공
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Medical Engineering > 1. Theses(Master)
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