면역대사에서 일산화탄소와 메트포민의 유사점과 차이점

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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) can exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with increased inflammation and influx of proinflammatory cells and mediators in the airspaces and lung parenchyma. In this study, we demonstrate that pterostilbene 4-β-glucoside (4-PG), the glycosylated form of the antioxidant pterostilbene (PTER), can protect against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa- (P. aeruginosa-) induced ALI when applied as a pretreatment or therapeutic post-treatment, via the induction of HO-1. To determine whether HO-1 mediates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of 4-PG, we subjected mice genetically deficient in Hmox-1 to LPS-induced ALI and evaluated histological changes, HO-1 expression, and proinflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. 4-PG exhibited protective effects on LPS- or P. aeruginosa-induced ALI by ameliorating pathological changes in lung tissue and decreasing proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, HO-1 expression was significantly increased by 4-PG in cells and in mouse lung tissues. The glycosylated form of pterostilbene (4-PG) was more effective than PTER in inducing HO-1 expression. Genetic deletion of Hmox-1 abolished the protective effects of 4-PG against LPS-induced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we found that 4-PG decreased both intracellular ROS levels and mitochondrial (mt) ROS production in a manner dependent on HO-1. Pharmacological application of the HO-1 reaction product carbon monoxide (CO), but not biliverdin or iron, conferred protection in Hmox-1-deficient macrophages. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 4-PG can increase HO-1 expression, which plays a critical role in ameliorating intracellular and mitochondrial ROS production, as well as in downregulating inflammatory responses induced by LPS. Therefore, these findings strongly suggest that HO-1 mediates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of 4-PG.|Metformin (N, N-dimethylbiganode), a kind of anti-diabetic drug, is known to attenuate hepatic steatosis by autophagy-induced lipid clearance. Although metformin attenuates hepatic steatosis through autophagic pathway, little is known about the mechanism of metformin-induced lipid clearance by lipophagy. We investigate the relationship between tristetraprolin (TTP), which promotes degradation of target genes, and transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, in metformin-induced lipophagy. In this study, we show that metformin inhibits mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and then activates TFEB through TTP-mediated degradation of ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) in mouse liver cell line and mouse primary hepatocytes. We also investigate that metformin-induced TFEB activation via TTP-mediated mTORC1 inhibition induces lipophagy in oleic acid (OA)-stimulated liver cell line and mouse primary hepatocytes. To demonstrate the role of TTP in metformin effects in high fat diet-induced liver disease, Ttp+/+ and Ttp -/- mice were fed a high fat diet in the presence or absence of metformin. Ttp-/- mice abolished metformin-induced therapeutic effects in liver disease. Taken together, we show that metformin induces TFEB nuclear translocation via mTORC1 signaling inhibition. Moreover, TTP is required for metformin-induced TFEB activation to promote high fat diet-induced liver disease.|Immunometabolism, defined as the interaction of metabolic pathways with the immune system, influences the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Metformin and carbon monoxide (CO) are two pharmacological agents known to ameliorate metabolic disorders. There are notable similarities and differences in the reported effects of metformin and CO on immunometabolism. Metformin, an anti-diabetes drug, has positive effects on metabolism and can exert anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects via adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent and AMPK-independent mechanisms. CO, an endogenous product of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), can exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects at low concentration. CO can confer cytoprotection in metabolic disorders and cancer via selective activation of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (PERK) pathway. Both metformin and CO can induce mitochondrial stress to produce a mild elevation of mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) by distinct mechanisms. Metformin inhibits complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), while CO inhibits ETC complex IV. Both metformin and CO can differentially induce several protein factors, including fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and sestrin2 (SESN2), which maintain metabolic homeostasis; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the antioxidant response; and REDD1, which exhibits an anticancer effect. However, metformin and CO regulate these effects via different pathways. Metformin stimulates p53- and AMPK-dependent pathways whereas CO can selectively trigger the PERK-dependent signaling pathway. Although further studies are needed to identify the mechanistic differences between metformin and CO, pharmacological application of these agents may represent useful strategies to ameliorate metabolic diseases associated with altered immunometabolism.
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MetforminCarbon monoxideAcute lung injuryNon alcoholic fatty liver diseaseLipophagyImmunometabolism
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일반대학원 생명과학과
울산대학교 일반대학원 생명과학과
울산대학교 논문은 저작권에 의해 보호받습니다.
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Life Science > 2. Theses (Ph.D)
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