바흐-부조니의 샤콘느 라단조, BWV 1004에 대한 연구
- 바흐(J. S. Bach)는 약 1720년경인 쾨텐시기에 「무반주 바이올린을 위한 파르티타 제2번」 BWV 1004를 작곡하였다. 그 중 5번째 곡인 샤콘느(Chaconne)가 바이올린 작품 중에서도 걸작이라고 말할 수 있으며 화성적이고 대위법적인 구성으로 보다 높은 바이올린 연주기교를 요구한다.
그 후 19세기 ~ 20세기 초 독일 작곡가 부조니(Ferruccio Benvenuto Busoni)가 바흐의 샤콘느를 편곡하였으며 원곡에서 사용되는 바이올린의 한계를 극복하고자 피아노를 선택하여 다양한 연주기법과 음색, 음역의 확대 등을 사용하여 재해석하고 있다. 또한 바흐의 샤콘느와 동일한 구성으로 크게 A-B-A’의 3부분 형식으로 구성되며, 대개 8마디의 악구로 구성되어 있다. 조성면에서도 A (d minor) - B (D Major) - A’ (d minor)의 3부분이 극명하게 나타난다.
이와 같이 부조니는 조성, 화성, 기본적 리듬을 크게 훼손시키지 않는 방향에서 원곡에 충실하였고 피아노의 특성을 최대한 끌어올렸다. 또한 잦은 템포 변화와 지시어 제시, 상세한 연주기법, 리듬변화 등을 이용하여 자신만의 음악적 표현을 하고 있으며 바흐의 곡을 재조명하여 샤콘느의 음악적 가치를 높이고 있다. |Busoni is one of the neoclassical representative composers, who did activities positively in the late Romantic era from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century. At an early stage, he composed a lot of works which were strongly influenced by J. S. Bach, F. Mendelssohn and R. Schumann and in the mid 1880's he was influenced by Brahms. During ten years since 1891, he was absorbed in the transcription works. In addition, he transcribed the works by other composers in multiple ways. There were a lot of examples like transciption for piano solo, for piano except the piano solo, and for the instrument except the piano, etc.
Busoni was dealing with every work independently free from formalities and he always approached with a new method in individual works. Taking a look at two viewpoints, first, he varied the form through the technique to extend or reduce in terms of form. Second, he created the works by using the method of trying to vary by completely different sound, by selecting different instruments in terms of sound. At his last stage, he represented several forms in the Baroque era by using the modern harmony, tonality, melody, rhythm and timbre.
This study was to investigate Chaconne, the fifth piece of J. S. Bach's 'Violin Partita No. 2 BWV 1004' on the subject of transcribing it with the piano music by Busoni. Busoni's Chaconne is largely composed of three sectional forms like A-B-A', and in most instances, is composed of the phrase with 8 measures. It is sharply presented as three sections like A (d minor) - B (D Major) - A' (d minor) in terms of tonality. For harmonic characteristic, the chromatic progression and diatonic progression were shown based on i-V-VI-V-i with a polyphonic structure. In addition, it gave a sense of unity to the whole music by repeating, reducing and extending the main rhythm♩.♪♩ in terms of rhythm. The directives were suggested in each variation for tempo, and this study has found out that it presented the characteristic of each musical piece by suggesting the theme symbol, beat accent and dynamics in detail.
Busoni tried to express the parts by piano that the violin was difficult to express, for example, the pedal point. It can be aware of his intentions to express the grandeur by using the polyphonic harmony which was difficult to perform it by violin. It also presented the maximum contrast of timbre and wide sound effect by doing the frequent use of musical motif contracting to use a wide range of sound. In addition, it can be the intent to express the melody clearly by using the cross progression from the right hand and left hand.
Furthermore, this study was to discuss a bit difficult things or need to understand in depth among the harmonies used in Busoni Chaconne. In particular, this study was to deal with the things intensively which were difficult to see in the general harmonic knowledge: the use of the hidden circle of fifth, the progression to ♭VI or♭VII and the analysis in the chromatic harmonic progression, etc.
Likewise, Busoni was faithful to the original music not giving great damage to the tonality, harmony and basic rhythm. And, he raised the musical value of Chaconne by making the most of the characteristics of piano and reviewing the Bach's music newly. Busoni's Chaconne can be recognized as his creative work further, not simply transcription work.
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