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Clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis presenting with isolated facial edema complicated by acute respiratory failure: a case report

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Abstract
Background In clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis, the hallmark cutaneous manifestations are the key to diagnosis. We report a case of clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis which presented with facial edema as the sole cutaneous manifestation and was later complicated by acute respiratory failure leading to death. Case presentation A 58-year-old woman presented with edema of the face that had developed approximately one year ago. There was no weakness in the extremities, and the serum creatine kinase level was within normal range. On MRI, there was diffuse edematous change in the bilateral masticator and extra-ocular muscles, accompanied by subcutaneous fat infiltration in the face. A shared decision was made to defer muscle biopsy in the facial muscles. The facial swelling almost resolved with medium-dose glucocorticoid therapy but relapsed in days at glucocorticoid doses lower than 15 mg/day. Combination therapy with either azathioprine, mycophenolate, or methotrexate was not successful in maintaining clinical remission, and the swelling became more severe after relapses. A US-guided core-needle biopsy was subsequently performed in the right masseter muscle. On pathologic examination, there was a patchy CD4 + T cell-dominant lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the stroma, necrosis of the myofibrils and prominent perifascicular atrophy. Based on those findings, a diagnosis of clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis was made. Therapy with gamma-globulin was not effective in maintaining remission. In the sixth week after starting rituximab, she presented to emergency room with altered mental state from acute respiratory failure. Despite treatment with antibiotics, glucocorticoid pulse, cyclosporin, and polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion, she died three weeks later from persistent hypoxemic respiratory failure. Conclusions This case showed the full spectrum and severity of internal organ involvement of dermatomyositis, although the patient presented exclusively with subcutaneous edema limited to the head. The prognosis may be more closely associated with a specific auto-antibody profile than the benign-looking initial clinical manifestation. Close follow-up of lung involvement with prophylactic treatment for Pneumocystis pneumonia and prompt implementation of emerging therapeutic regimens may improve the outcome.
Author(s)
임두호소민욱김연미류지화이재하박찬선김성호이성근
Issued Date
2021
Type
Article
Keyword
Amyopathic dermatomyositisSubcutaneous tissueEdemaPneumocystis pneumoniaInterstitial lung diseaseCase report
DOI
10.1186/s12891-021-03996-1
URI
https://oak.ulsan.ac.kr/handle/2021.oak/6985
https://ulsan-primo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/primo-explore/fulldisplay?docid=TN_cdi_doaj_primary_oai_doaj_org_article_5195b406b9cd4f8f96e299291e82d836&context=PC&vid=ULSAN&lang=ko_KR&search_scope=default_scope&adaptor=primo_central_multiple_fe&tab=default_tab&query=any,contains,Clinically%20amyopathic%20dermatomyositis%20presenting%20with%20isolated%20facial%20edema%20complicated%20by%20acute%20respiratory%20failure:%20a%20case%20report&offset=0&pcAvailability=true
Publisher
BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS
Location
영국
Language
영어
ISSN
1471-2474
Citation Volume
22
Citation Number
1
Citation Start Page
0
Citation End Page
0
Appears in Collections:
Medicine > Medicine
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