Oral Semaglutide, the First Ingestible Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist: Could It Be a Magic Bullet for Type 2 Diabetes?
- The gastrointestinal tract secretes gut hormones in response to food consumption, and some of these stimulate insulin secretion. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin peptide hormone released from the lower digestive tract that stimulates insulin secretion, suppresses glucagon secretion, and decreases hunger. GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) mimics the action of endogenous GLP-1, consequently reversing hyperglycemia and causing weight reduction, demonstrating its efficacy as an antidiabetic and antiobesity agent. Previously restricted to injection only, the invention of the absorption enhancer sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino) caprylate resulted in the development of oral semaglutide, the first ingestible GLP-1RA. Oral semaglutide demonstrated its efficacy in glycemic management and body weight loss with a low risk of hypoglycemia as a monotherapy and in combination with other hypoglycemic medications in its clinical trial programs named Peptide Innovation for Early Diabetes Treatment. Consistent with other injectable GLP-1RAs, gastrointestinal side effects were often reported. Additionally, cardiovascular safety was established by demonstrating that oral semaglutide was not inferior to a placebo in terms of cardiovascular outcomes. Thus, oral semaglutide represents a novel treatment option that is particularly well-suited for patients with type 2 diabetes and/or obesity.
- 김휘승; 정창희
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- GLP-1 receptor; obesity; semaglutide; type 2 diabetes
- INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
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