Capecitabine plus temozolomide in patients with grade 3 unresectable or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms with Ki-67 index < 55%: single-arm phase II study
- Background: Grade 3 neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) origin with Ki-67 indices <55% do not respond well to platinum-based chemotherapy. The combination of capecitabine and temozolomide (CAPTEM) has shown favorable responses in grade 1-2 NENs, but has rarely been studied in patients with grade 3 NENs.
Patients and methods: This open-label, single-arm phase II trial included patients with unresectable or metastatic grade 3 NENs of GEP origin with Ki-67 indices <55% enrolled between June 2017 and July 2020. Patients received oral capecitabine 750 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1 to 14 and oral temozolomide 200 mg/m(2) once daily on days 10 to 14 every 4 weeks. Histologic findings were centrally reviewed after the completion of enrollment. The primary endpoint was overall response rate, and the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events.
Results: Of the 30 patients included in the full analysis set, 1 (3.3%) achieved complete response, 8 (26.7%) had partial responses, and 14 (46.7%) had stable disease, making the overall response rate 30.0%. At a median follow-up of 19.2 months, the median PFS was 5.9 months and the median OS was not reached. Patients with well-differentiated NENs showed significantly better median PFS (9.3 months versus 3.5 months, P = 0.005) and median OS (not reached versus 6.2 months, P = 0.004) than patients with poorly differentiated tumors. Expression of O-6-methyl-guanine methyltransferase protein did not correlate with clinical outcomes. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (10%), anemia (6.7%), and nausea (6.7%).
Conclusions: CAPTEM was effective and well tolerated in patients with grade 3 GEP-NENs with Ki-67 indices <55%, with superior efficacy outcomes compared with the historical controls receiving platinum- based chemotherapy.
- 김규표; 김용일; 류백렬; 류진숙; 신진호; 유창훈; 정재호; 정혜현; 홍승모
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- capecitabine; MGMT; neuroendocrine tumor; Original; temozolomide
- ESMO OPEN
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