Mechanistic Pathways for the Molecular Step Growth of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystal Revealed by In Situ Liquid-Phase Atomic Force Microscopy
- Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal is the most common crystalline component of human kidney stones. The molecular-scale inhibitory mechanisms of COM crystal growth by urinary biomolecules such as citrate and osteopontin adsorbed onto the crystal surface are now well understood. However, the pathways by which dissolved calcium and oxalate ions are incorporated into the molecular step of the COM crystal surface, leading to COM crystal growth. a prerequisite to be elucidated for developing effective therapeutics to inhibit COM stones.remain unknown. Here, using in situ liquid-phase atomic microscopy along with a step kinetic model, we reveal the pathways of the calcium and oxalate ions into the COM molecular step via the growth speed analysis of the molecular steps with respect to their step width at the nanoscale. Our results show that, primarily, the ions are adsorbed onto the terrace of the crystal surface from the solution.the rate-controlling stage for the molecular step growth, i.e., COM crystal growth.and then diffuse over it and are eventually incorporated into the steps. This primary pathway of the ions is unaffected by the model peptide D-Asp(6) adsorbed on the COM crystal surface, suggesting that urinary biomolecules will not alter the pathway. These new findings rendering an essential understanding of the fundamental growth mechanism of COM crystal at the nanoscale provide crucial insights beneficial to the development of effective therapeutics for COM kidney stones.
- Kang Rae Cho; Jung-Hwan Lee; 서형석; Yunseong Ji; Jeung Hun Park; Sang-Eui Lee; Hae-Won Kim; Kuang Jen J. Wu; Prashant Kulshreshtha
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- calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals; in situ liquid-phase atomic force microscopy; step kinetics; surface diffusion crystal growth mechanisms; human kidney stones
- ACS APPLIED MATERIALS INTERFACES
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